Georgia beaches are not only vacation destinations, they are prime spots for nesting shorebirds and seabirds and for migrating species feeding for long flights to the Arctic.
American oystercatchers, Wilson’s plovers and least terns use sites such as Little Tybee Island, Pelican Spit off Sea Island, Cumberland Island and the southern end of Jekyll Island. Among other species, black skimmers, royal terns and gull-billed terns also nest on Georgia beaches and offshore sandbars.
For these birds that are nesting, human disturbance is a significant threat. Shorebirds and seabirds also face risks from native predators and high spring tides. Pets can be destructive, too, killing or scaring birds.
Visitors to Georgia’s beaches can help beach-nesting birds and migrating species by:
- Avoiding posted sites. (Eggs and chicks are camouflaged and easy to overlook or even step on.)
- Walking below the high-tide line.
- Watching beach birds only from a distance.
- Backing away from any nesting birds they accidentally disturb.
Adults frightened from a nest will often call loudly and exhibit distraction displays, such as dragging a wing as if it’s broken. Sometimes the birds will dive-bomb people who get too close to their nest, said wildlife biologist Tim Keyes of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources.
Keyes also encouraged visitors to leave dogs at home or keep them on a leash when visiting a beach where dogs are allowed. Owners who let their dogs chase shorebirds can be cited for harassing federally protected species. “Dogs and beach wildlife are incompatible,” Keyes said.
Pets are excluded by regulation or law at sites including Tybee Island, the beachfront portion of Little Tybee, Pelican Spit, Satilla Marsh Island, Jekyll’s south end, and St. Catherines and Little Egg Island bars. (The bars, Pelican Spit and Brunswick Dredge Island, another key nesting site, also are closed to people.)
Beach-nesting birds nest above the high-tide line on wide, terraced beach flats or in the edge of dunes. In Georgia, the birds lay eggs in shallow scrapes in the sand from mid-March through July. After hatching, chicks hide on the beach or in the grass.
Disturbance by people or pets can cause adult birds to abandon eggs and chicks, exposing them to heat and predators. On a hot day, Keyes said, “in as little as 10 minutes, the eggs can be cooked.”
The threats are similar for migrating seabirds and shorebirds. The coast provides vital stopover sites for species such as federally threatened red knots flying from South America and the Arctic. Red knots flushed from feeding might not gain the weight needed to survive their more than 9,000-mile migration.
“With a little bit of effort and concern, we all can enjoy the beach,” said Keyes, who works for the DNR Wildlife Resources Division’s Wildlife Conservation Section.
The effort is worth it. Recently on St. Simons’ East Beach and a bar in Gould’s Inlet, at the north end of the popular beach, Keyes counted a pair of oystercatchers, 46 black skimmer nests, 21 gull-billed tern nests and 25 least tern nests, plus about 10 pairs of Wilson’s plovers
A Beach Stewards program powered by volunteers helps monitor least terns nesting on East Beach. Participants inform the public and steer dogs and beachgoers away from the roped-off colony. Interested in being a Beach Steward? Contact Keyes, (912) 222-0424 or email@example.com.
As with all migratory bird species, shorebirds and seabirds in Georgia are protected by the federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Some species, such as piping plovers and red knots, have additional protections under the Endangered Species Act.
DNR’s Wildlife Conservation Section works to conserve shorebirds, seabirds and other Georgia wildlife not legally fished for or hunted, as well as rare plants and natural habitats. The agency depends primarily on fundraisers, grants and contributions. That makes public support critical.
Georgians can help by contributing to the state’s Nongame Wildlife Conservation Fund. Here’s how:
- Buy a DNR eagle or monarch butterfly license plate, or renew any of the older designs, including the hummingbird tags. Most of the fees are dedicated to wildlife. Upgrade to a wild tag for only $25! Details at georgiawildlife.com/licenseplates.
- Donate at gooutdoorsgeorgia.com. Click “Licenses and Permits” and log in to give. (New customers can create an account.) There’s even an option to round-up for wildlife.
- Donate directly to the agency. Learn more at georgiawildlife.com/donations.
Visit georgiawildlife.com/conservation/annualreport to see how support is put to work for wildlife.
BEACH BIRD TIPS
How can you help birds when visiting a Georgia beach?
- Stay in high-traffic areas; birds are less likely to nest where crowds gather.
- Walk below the high-tide line or on wet-sand beaches.
- Avoid posted nesting sites. (Eggs and chicks are camouflaged and easy to overlook or even step on.)
- Observe beach birds only from a distance. Back away from any nesting birds you accidentally disturb. (Adults frightened from a nest will often call loudly and exhibit distraction displays, such as dragging one wing as if it’s broken.)
- If you see people disturbing nesting birds, respectfully tell them how their actions can affect the birds. If the people continue, contact DNR’s Law Enforcement hotline, (800) 241-4113 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Leave dogs at home or keep them on a leash when visiting a beach where they’re allowed. (Owners who let their dogs chase shorebirds can be fined for harassing protected species.)
- Keep house cats indoors, and don’t feed feral cats. Cats often prey on birds.
- Help spread the word through family, friends and social media about the importance of giving beach-nesting birds the space they need to thrive.
Beach-nesting bird tips and video are available at georgiawildlife.com/conservation/birds (click “Share the Beach”).